The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), a federal law, defines a learning disability as a condition when a child's achievement is substantially below what one might expect for that child. A learning disability does not include problems like hearing, visual or emotional disability and not even an intellectual disability. Children with learning disabilities mostly have a problem with reading that usually starts with basic sounds and phonemes. These children usually have a problem in telling words apart from their individual words and also combining them. They could further have a problem in rhyming as well. This leads to a problem in decoding words which can further create problems in fluency and comprehension.
Multiple data sources are used. These include standardized tests, student self report measures, parent reports, informal measures and observations, data is also taken from response to intervention approaches. The main aim is to focus on the needs as well as the strengths of the individual. It integrates, interprets and summarizes the data.